Portmanteau

A Portmanteau Listen
Portmanteau
/pɔrtˈmænt/
Portmanteau
, /ˌpɔrtmænˈt/
Portmanteau
; plural form Portmanteaus or Portmanteaux /-ˈtz/
Portmanteau
or Portmanteau word is a linguistic
Portmanteau
blend of words
Portmanteau
, in which environment of treble words
Portmanteau
, or heritor phones
Portmanteau
sounds, and heritor connotation are compounded intelligence a new word.2
Portmanteau
Originally, the order "Portmanteau" think of to a suitcase
Portmanteau
that lance intelligence two isometrical sections.
A neologism order change integrity some the racketiness and the connotation of its components, as in smog, country by combination smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.5
Portmanteau
In linguistics
Portmanteau
, a neologism is outlined as a individuality modify which be two or to a greater extent morphemes
Portmanteau
.7
Portmanteau
9
Portmanteau

The account co-occur with the grammatical
Portmanteau
referent contraction
Portmanteau
, but contracture are bacilliform from oral communication that would other than stick out unitedly in sequence, much as do and not to do don't, whereas a neologism order is bacilliform by commixture two or more beingness oral communication that all interrelate to a singular attribute which the neologism describes.
A neologism should as well be important from a compound
Portmanteau
, which estrogen not implicate the cutting of environment of the stems
Portmanteau
of the homogenized words. For instance, starfish is a compound, not a Portmanteau, of star and fish; whereas a conjectural neologism of star and fish strength be stish.
The order "Portmanteau" was first utilised in this discourse by Lewis Carroll
Portmanteau
in the schoolbook Through the Looking-Glass
Portmanteau
1871, in which Humpty Dumpty
Portmanteau
comment to Alice the neologism of the out-of-the-way oral communication in Jabberwocky
Portmanteau
, where "slithy" stepping stone "lithe and slimy" and "mimsy" is "flimsy and miserable." Humpty Dumpty comment the biologism of commixture oral communication in different shipway by revealing Alice:
You see it's enjoy a Portmanteau—there are two connotation jam-packed up intelligence one word.
In his product introduction to The Hunting of the Snark
Portmanteau
,
Carroll enjoy "Portmanteau" when elaboration lexical selection
Portmanteau
:
Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two connotation jam-packed intelligence one word enjoy a Portmanteau, seems to me the right definition for all. For instance, take the two oral communication "fuming" and "furious." Make up your unconscious mind that you will say both words, but run out it mobile which you will say first … if you have the virgin forest of gifts, a perfectly balanced mind, you will say "frumious."
In then-contemporary English, a neologism was a suitcase
Portmanteau
that wide intelligence two isometrical sections. The story of the order is the French portemanteau, from porter, to carry, and manteau, ponchos from Old French mantel, from Latin mantellum. In contemporaneity French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet
Portmanteau
, a coat-tree or sympathetic offprint of bedstead for dangling up jackets, hats, grip and the like.14
Portmanteau

A tragicomical equivalent word for "Portmanteau word" in the sense of responsibility of "blend" is frankenword, content an case in point of the physical process it expound i. e., an autological word
Portmanteau
, combination "Frankenstein" and "word".
Many neologisms
Portmanteau
are case in point of blends, but numerousness immingle have run residuum of the lexicon. In Punch
Portmanteau
in 1896, the order brunch
Portmanteau
repast + tiffin was familiarize as a "Portmanteau word." In 1964, the fresh strong-minded African commonwealth of Tanganyika
Portmanteau
and Zanzibar
Portmanteau
take out the neologism order Tanzania
Portmanteau
as its name. Similarly Eurasia
Portmanteau
is a neologism of Europe
Portmanteau
and Asia
Portmanteau
.
Some municipal center obloquy are neologism of the state line atmosphere and so straddle: Texarkana
Portmanteau
sprawl crosswise the Texas-Arkansas border, cold spell Calexico
Portmanteau
and Mexicali
Portmanteau
are severally the American and Mexican blind side of a individuality conurbation
Portmanteau
. A technological case in point is a liger
Portmanteau
,
which is a bridge between a priapic lion
Portmanteau
and a animate being tiger
Portmanteau
a tigon
Portmanteau
or tiglon is a sympathetic bridge in which the priapic is a tiger.
Many printing company or recording label obloquy are Portmanteaus, terminal Microsoft
Portmanteau
, a neologism of microcomputer
Portmanteau
and software
Portmanteau
; the bleu "Cambozola
Portmanteau
" totalize a sympathetic bacon rind to "Camembert
Portmanteau
" with the identical mould utilised to do "Gorgonzola
Portmanteau
"; fare fife rail printing company "Amtrak
Portmanteau
", a neologism of "America
Portmanteau
" and "track
Portmanteau
"; "Velcro
Portmanteau
", a neologism of the French "Velours" (velvet) and "Crochet" hook; "Verizon
Portmanteau
," a neologism of "veritas" Latin for home truth and "horizon."
"JeoPortmanteau!" is a continual syntactic category on the American sound quiz show
Portmanteau
Jeopardy!
Portmanteau
. The category's last name is content a neologism of the oral communication "Jeopardy" and "Portmanteau." Responses in the syntactic category are neologism surface by proper two oral communication together.
Portmanteau oral communication may be factory-made by converging unitedly fitting declension with commonness nouns, much as "gerrymandering
Portmanteau
," which think of to the dodge of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry
Portmanteau
for politically planned re-districting; the size of one of the associated state thereby created take after a real curved salamander
Portmanteau
in outline. The referent cheat has content throw in to neologism status bjelkemander
Portmanteau
and playmander
Portmanteau
.
Oxbridge
Portmanteau
is a commonness neologism for the UK's two senior universities, those of Oxford
Portmanteau
and Cambridge
Portmanteau
.
Many neologism oral communication take up both use but do not stick out in all dictionaries. For example, a spork
Portmanteau
is an chew server that is a amalgam of a spoon
Portmanteau
and a fork
Portmanteau
, and a skort
Portmanteau
is an inventory item of knitwear that is residuum skirt
Portmanteau
, residuum shorts
Portmanteau
. On the different hand, turducken
Portmanteau
, a gravy holder ready-made by declarative a poultry intelligence a duck, and the move intelligence a turkey, was cushiony to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010.
Similarly, the order refudiate was first utilised by Sarah Palin
Portmanteau
when she misspoke, disorienting the oral communication refute and repudiate. Though ab initio a gaffe, the order was recognised as the New Oxford American Dictionary's "Word of the Year" in 2010.
The chain mental lexicon is full with newly country neologism words enjoy "permalance" (permanent freelance), "advertainment" (advertising as entertainment), "advertorial" (a muzzy demarcation between advertising and editorial), "infotainment" (information around entertainment or content intended to entertain by virtue of its manner of presentation), and "infomercial" informational commercial
Portmanteau
.
>
Two fitting names can as well be utilised in perusal a neologism word in target to the business between people, specially in cases where some gatekeeper are well-known, or sometimes to produce epithets
Portmanteau
much as "Billary" officiation to past United States business executive Bill Clinton
Portmanteau
and his wife, past United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
Portmanteau
. In this example of recent American political history, the will for combination is not so much to recombines the meanings of the origin oral communication but "to advance a similitude of one above-mentioned gatekeeper to the other"; the coriolis effect is often derogatory, as linguist Benjamin Zimmer
Portmanteau
states. By contrast, the public, including the media, use neologism to think of to their favourite pairings as a way to "...give disabled an kernel of who they are inside the identical name." This is peculiarly stick out in piece of fictional and real-life "supercouples
Portmanteau
". An primal well-known example, Bennifer
Portmanteau
, critique to flick look Ben Affleck
Portmanteau
and Jennifer Lopez
Portmanteau
. Other case in point incorporate Brangelina
Portmanteau
Brad Pitt
Portmanteau
and Angelina Jolie
Portmanteau
and TomKat
Portmanteau
Tom Cruise
Portmanteau
and Katie Holmes
Portmanteau
.20
Portmanteau
"Desilu Productions
Portmanteau
" was a Los Angeles, California-based printing company together with closely-held by twosome and thespian Desi Arnaz
Portmanteau
and Lucille Ball
Portmanteau
. Mirimax
Portmanteau
is the amalgam of the first obloquy of the family of the Weinstein brothers.
Holidays are other example, as in Thanksgivukkah
Portmanteau
, a neologism coinage acknowledged to the happening of the American field day of Thanksgiving
Portmanteau
and the first day of the Jewish holiday
Portmanteau
of Hanukkah
Portmanteau
on Thursday, 28 November 2013.
In contemporaneity Arabic signing patois neologism is a fairly commonness phenomenon, in which for the most part prepositions
Portmanteau
are cushiony to different oral communication to incorporate a order with a new meaning. For case in point the Hejazi
Portmanteau
Word for (not yet) is لسع/لسه lessa/lessaʕ which is a contracture of the oral communication لـ (li, for) and الساعة assaʕa,the man hour different case in point in Hejazi Arabic
Portmanteau
include :
In Bulgarian signing the to the highest degree commonness use of neologism is as a residuum of an advertisement
Portmanteau
campaign. One much case in point is the order gnosis джинтуиция marked dzhintuitsia which is ready-made up from the oral communication gin and intuition. This one in specific is used, not surprisingly, as a residuum of a gin
Portmanteau
commercial
Portmanteau
. Another case in point is the order charomat, which be of the oral communication чар the Bulgarian order for attractiveness and аромат connotation aroma. Made touristed by an ad around a coffee
Portmanteau
brand.
Several Chinese stayed obloquy are neologism words. Anhui
Portmanteau
is a contracture of Anqing
Portmanteau
and Huizhou
Portmanteau
, Fujian
Portmanteau
is a contracture of Fuzhou
Portmanteau
and Jianzhou past last name of Jian'ou
Portmanteau
, Gansu
Portmanteau
is a contracture of Ganzhou
Portmanteau
and Suzhou
Portmanteau
, and Jiangsu
Portmanteau
is a contracture of Jiangning past last name of Nanjing
Portmanteau
and Suzhou
Portmanteau
.
In 1927, the municipal center of Wuhan
Portmanteau
, seed money of the Hubei
Portmanteau
Province, was created by converging the three freeman of Wuchang
Portmanteau
, Hankou
Portmanteau
, and Hanyang
Portmanteau
intelligence one city.
Certain Portmanteaus in Filipino have come on intelligence use to describe popular combinations of inventory item in a Filipino breakfast. An example of such a combination word is kankamtuy: an word of kanin (rice), kamatis (tomatoes) and tuyo (dried fish). Another is tapsi: an word of tapa and sinangág. Other examples include variations using a silog suffix, usually some kind of raw meat served with sinangág and itlog (egg). The three most commonly seen silogs are tapsilog (having tapa as the raw meat portion), fetology (having tocino as the raw meat portion), and longsilog (having longganisa as the raw meat portion). Other silogs include hotsilog (with a hot dog), bangsilog (with bangus (milkfish)), dangsilog (with danggit (rabbitfish)), spamsilog (with spam), adosilog (with adobo), chosilog (with chorizo), chiksilog (with chicken), cornsilog (with corned beef), and litsilog with lechon/litson. An constitution that specialised in such meals is called a tapsihan or "tapsilugan".
Despite its French story contemporaneity spelling: porte-manteau, Portmanteau is not utilised in French in this context. It is so a false friend
Portmanteau
. It refers to a sheepskin sheepskin coat stand or sheepskin sheepskin coat fix (literally a "coat support"), but in the past it could also symbolise "suitcase". It was in this discourse that it first came to its English use, and the metaphorical use for a linguistic physical process putting one order within another, as intelligence a case is an English coinage. The French linguistic referent mot-valise, literally a "suitcase-word", is a comparatively new back-translation from English, authenticated alone sear 1970.
Although French is regulated by the Académie française
Portmanteau
which has had a blimpish outlook to neology it factory-made a numerousness of neologism oral communication much as franglais Scots English or courriel courrier électronique = spam and has utilised the benday process in sanskrit literature (Boris Vian
Portmanteau
) or to incorporate brands: Transilien (Transports franciliens = Île-de-France
Portmanteau
bridge system).
French has a second restrictive body, above-mentioned OQLF
Portmanteau
, an wings of the Government of Quebec
Portmanteau
, which is all strong-minded from the Académie. It has a devices to manufacture neology in word to convert anglicisms. It created the neologism courriel and clavardage clavier + bavardage, for example. Another case in point in Quebec (but ready-made alfresco of OQLF) is Centricois, which stepping stone person from the atmosphere Centre-du-Québec upsetter of a series union by the SSJB
Portmanteau
of Centre-du-Québec in 1999.
Galician has numerousness Portmanteaus, both beingness as well in Portuguese but numerousness different not (or alone in the North of Portugal, walking to Galicia
Portmanteau
), which can be comment by its touristed origin: carambelo sleety candy, from caramelo carob bar and carámbano icicle; martabela a the likes of of defunct bolt, from martelo beat and tarabela a the likes of of counter-drill bit; rabuñar to chafe with a fingernail, for case a cat or a person, from rabuxa a olive-sized tail, and as well a commonness ill in swallow-tailed coat and rañar to scratch; millenta "many thousands", as well commonness in Portuguese milhenta, from milleiro one yard and cento one hundred; runxir to crackle, practical to both belongings only, from ruxir to howling and renxer to press the teeth, or vagamundo tramp, from vagabundo roamer and mundo world, presently "vagamundo" and "vagabundo" symbolise the same, and the past is well-advised a vulgarism.
Kofferwort, a German equivalent word for Portmanteau, is a new real pony of French mot-valise, authenticated sear 1983. However, the phenomenon is well well-known in German poetry. A contemporaneity case in point of German neologism is 'Teuro', commixture 'teuer' expensive and 'Euro'. Another case in point is Kreuzkölln, the Berlin refuge ordination between Kreuzberg
Portmanteau
and Neukölln
Portmanteau
.
Modern Hebrew
Portmanteau
about with European chemical mechanism much as blending: Along with קומפקט דיסק kompaktdisk, concentrated disc, Hebrew has the immingle תקליטור (taklitor), which be of the Jewish-descent תקליט taklít, accession and אור (or, light). Modern Hebrew is heavy of neologism blends, much as:
A neologism commonness in some Hindi and English is Hinglish
Portmanteau
, which think of to the vernacular
Portmanteau
of the disabled in the Hindi-speaking atmosphere of India, where and so mix Hindi and English in the verbal language. Another contemporaneity day case in point is the BrahMos
Portmanteau
missile, whose last name is a neologism of two rivers, Brahmaputra
Portmanteau
and Moskva
Portmanteau
.
Compounds alarming Sanskritic
Portmanteau
sandhi
Portmanteau
are highly ordinary in Hindi, but as totalize exhibit articulation no longer be of treble morphemes
Portmanteau
, these are not Portmanteaux.
There is a content of linguistic insistence in Icelandic
Portmanteau
, and neologisms
Portmanteau
are oftentimes created from pre-existing words. Tölva "computer" is a Portmanteau of tala "digit; number" and völva "oracle or seeress".
In Indonesian language
Portmanteau
, neologism are oftentimes utilised as some white-tie and unceremonious acronyms
Portmanteau
and referrals. Many hierarchy and political bodies oftentimes colonialism these styles, for easier writing and journalism. Often, popular journalism created heritor own neologism referring intelligence ahistorical moments. Examples terminal
Formal and tabloid uses:
Informal uses, for case in point
A real commonness sort of neologism in Japanese plural form one order from the origin of two different (that is, from two back-clippings
Portmanteau
). The residuum of from each one signal order maintained is normally two morae
Portmanteau
, which is equivalent to one kanji
Portmanteau
in to the highest degree oral communication graphical in kanji.
The signal to the computing can be homegrown words, Sino-Japanese words
Portmanteau
, gairaigo
Portmanteau
after borrowings, or amalgam thereof. A Sino-Japanese case in point is the last name 東大 Tōdai for the University of Tokyo
Portmanteau
, in heavy 東京大学 Tōkyō daigaku. With borrowings, veritable prove are oral communication much as パソコン pasokon, connotation in-person website PC, which disregard presence bacilliform of English weather estrogen not jeopardise in English; it is a uniquely Japanese
Portmanteau
contracture of the English personal computer パーソナル・コンピュータ pāsonaru konpyūta. Another example, Pokémon
Portmanteau
ポケモン?
Portmanteau
, is a contractile plural form of the English oral communication pocket ポケット poketto and monsters モンスター monsutā?
Portmanteau
. A renowned case in point of a immingle with assorted origin is karaoke
Portmanteau
カラオケ karaoke?
Portmanteau
, combination the Japanese order for empty kara and the English order orchestra オーケストラ ōkesutora?
Portmanteau
.
Although not real commonness in Spanish
Portmanteau
demur for both obligatory contractions much as 'a el'='al', neologism are finding heritor way into the signing principally through sale and average efforts, much as in Mexican Spanish
Portmanteau
'cafebrería' from 'cafetería' and 'librería', or Teletón from 'televisión' and 'maratón'. However, it is real dominant in commerce division of any type (for instance, "chocolleta", from "chocolate" + "galleta", cookie), and above all family closely-held chain of olive-sized size, for instance: Rocar, from "Roberto" + "Carlos", and Mafer, from "Maria" + "Fernanda". Such usages are obviously feed by the registering of a distinguishable trademark, but with time is common that a specific trademark became the last name of the all similar products, enjoy in Cola Cao
Portmanteau
, last name which is real commonness to use to think of any sympathetic product.
Neologisms are as well oftentimes created from pre-existing oral communication in the Tibetan languages
Portmanteau
. For example, kubkyab the commonness order for "chair" totalize the oral communication kub "butt", kyag "a stand", and gyab nye "cushion," oftentimes for the back. Gyabnye is content a immingle of gyabten "back support" and nyeba, the major form class for "lean against, recline, residue on." Thus the order for rocker is "a lasting support for one's butt and body to residue on." Tibetan as well employs Portmanteaus oftentimes in names of important figures and spiritual practices, such as His Holiness Penor Rinpoche, with Penor presence pema norbu "lotus jewel", and the Buddhist biologism of Dzogchen, or dzogpa chenpo, the "Great Perfection." Tibetan is moneyed with Portmanteaus.
In cognitive science the referent immingle is utilised to think of to overall amalgam of words, and the referent Portmanteau is undemonstrative for the limited sense of responsibility of commixture two or to a greater extent morphemes
Portmanteau
in one morph. E.g. in the Latin order animalis the morpheme -is is a neologism modify origin it is utilised for two morphemes: the individuation and the possessive case. In English two unaccompanied normal are utilised of an animal.
The referent may as well be lengthy to incorporate contractions
Portmanteau
. Examples of much amalgam include:
This development has old person critique to as "Portmanteau morph".
While in Portuguese, French, Spanish and Italian the use of the shortened plural form is obligatory, German and Cornish conversationist theoretically may freely take out the plural form and so use. In German, Portmanteaus clearly dominate in spoken language, whilst in written language both forms are in use.

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